Special Tests

Myotomes

L2 – Hip flexion 

L3 – Knee extension

L4 – Ankle dorsiflexion, ankle inversion

L5 – Extension of big toe

S1 – Ankle plantar flexion, ankle eversion of foot, knee flexion

S2 – Knee flexion, toe standing

Can be graded using the oxford grading system (0-5; 5 being normal strength, 3 against gravity)

 

Reflex testing

Patella Tendon / Knee Jerk – L2-4

Medial Hamstring / semimembranosus – L5

Achilles Tendon / Ankle Jerk – S1

Grading of reflexes

  • Absent
  • Diminished
  • Normal
  • Exaggerated
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